Tag Archives: aquatic

How Does Our Interpretation Of Urbanisation Affect How Damaging It Is?

Increased urbanisation may have a negative effect on the richness of moth species like this Vine’s Rustic, but it depends on what scale we consider richness (Image Credit: Patrick Clement, CC BY 2.0, Image Cropped)

Urbanization drives cross-taxon declines in abundance and diversity at multiple spatial scales (2019) Piano et al., Global Change Biology, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14934

The Crux

You would think that the effect of building a whole lot of stuff on something’s habitat would have a negative effect on just about anything. But building a whole lot of human stuff (maybe let’s retain a modicum of science-ness and call it urbanisation) hasn’t always been shown to be necessarily bad for species. There are a lot of studies out there which show that urbanisation is can be a negative for biodiversity (which makes sense, since for starters it generally breaks up habitat patches and introduces a whole lot more pollutants). But there are also studies showing that urbanisation can increase biodiversity.

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The Roles of Aquatic Predators

Image Credit: Neil Hammerschlag, Oregon State University, Image Cropped, CC BY-SA 2.0

Ecosystem Function and Services of Aquatic Predators in the Anthropocene (2019) Hammerschalg et al., Trends in Ecology and Evolution, https://doi.org/10.106/j.tree.2019.01.001

The Crux

Aquatic predators play an important role in many ecosystems, and are often among the more charismatic species in the ecosystem. Because of this, they are often the target of conservation for ocean management bodies worldwide. This paper aims to provide a synthesis of the ecosystem services that aquatic predators provide in marine and freshwater ecosystems worldwide. Below, we’ve chosen 4 of the more interesting and important roles to go into.

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The Ecology of a Mermaid

Image Credit: The Little Mermaid, 1989

Adam regales us with one of the weirdest stories I’ve ever heard, and in case you were wondering, yes we do talk about how mermaids have sex. Jesus. Also there’s some cool ecology. Like how did mermaids evolve? Was it from a mutated baby tossed overboard? Probably not.

05:19 – Mermaids in Cinema
16:35 – Ecology of the Mermaids
33:25 – Mermaid Copulation (you were warned)
38:07 – The Mermaids vs. Jaws

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Battle of the Sexes

If male and female predators like this newt hunt in different places, they may have different effects on prey communities. (Image Credit: Dave Huth, CC BY 2.0, Image Cropped)
Sexual dimorphism in a top predator (Notophthalmus viridescens) drives aquatic prey community assembly (2018) Start & De Lisle, Proceedings B, doi:10.1098/rspb.2018.1717

The Crux

Ecology is a scientific discipline focused on the interactions between the biotic (living) and abiotic (non-living) parts of the environment, and within ecology the subdiscipline of community ecology focuses on how these biotic and abiotic parts interact to determine what species live where. When researchers investigate these relationships, they tend to only consider differences between species, instead of differences within a single species. This means that we are missing a big part of the picture, as differences within a single species can outnumber those between multiple species.

One of the most common differences within a species are those between males and females. Depending on the species in question, one sex can be bigger, eat more, live longer, or eat different things, and this can have an effect on the community that the species in question lives in. Despite these many differences between the sexes, there weren’t any direct empirical examples in the scientific literature of these differences affecting community dynamics. The authors of this paper were the first to use an experiment to investigate this phenomenon, using the red-spotted newt (Notophthalmus viridescens), which is an important predator in aquatic communities.

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Episode 6: The Creature from the Black Lagoon

Image Credit: The Creature from the Black Lagoon, 1954

We submerge ourselves into the murky depths of what is clearly a backyard pool and meet… yet another man in a suit. This week is all about the Gillman from 1712’s The Creature from the Black Lagoon. Dave and Adam both need more bloody caffeine.

4:29 – Movie History
14:23 – Physiology of the Gillman
37:51 – Ecology of the Gillman
1:01:56 – The Gillman vs. Richard Strickland from The Shape of Water

Marie-Agnès Coutellec: The Problem with Pesticides

Europe's freshwater ecosystems are increasingly exposed to pesticides, and the trend is only getting worse. So is there hope for our aquatic life?

Image Credit: pxhereCC0 1.0, Image Cropped

When I’ve talked about anthropogenic effects, I’ve been guilty of focussing far too much on climate change and land use. But our dependence on toxicants like pesticides also has a profound impact on ecosystems, freshwater ecosystems in particular. On her recent visit to NTN in Trondheim, I spoke to ecotoxicologist Dr. Marie-Agnes Coutellec about her research group’s work with pesticides, and the likely future for much of Europe’s aquatic life.

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