Tag Archives: butterfly

The Key Component

Host availability drives the spatiotemporal dynamics of interaction metapopulations across a fragmented landscape (2020) Opedal et al. 2020, Ecology. https://doi.org/10.1002/ecy.3186

Image Credit: Ferran Turmo Gort, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0, Image Cropped

The Crux

Ecology is all about understanding how biotic and abiotic factors interact within environments. Biotic factors are those that involve living organisms such as prey availability/resource abundance (i.e., the availability of food and resources?), competitor density, or predator density. Abiotic factors, however, are those that involve non-living aspects of the environment, such as rainfall or temperature. Studying how these various factors interact with one another allows researchers to better understand how and why ecological dynamics vary across a changing landscape.

One really cool thing about ecological dynamics is that they can play out across trophic levels, meaning something happening at the level of the resource (such as grass) can then result in changes at a higher trophic level, such as that of the consumer (deer) or predator (wolf). While there has been an enormous amount of work dedicated to understanding how these species interactions affect the species involved, much less is known about how these dynamics play out across a natural landscape. Today’s authors used a well-known model system (see Did You Know?) to study just that.

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Fading Into the Background

Mostly limited to ocean animals, transparency is thought to help escape predators by blending the animal in with its environment, but is this what actually happens? (Image Credit: birdphotos.com, CC BY 3.0, Image Cropped)

Transparency reduces predator detection in mimetic clearwing butterflies (2019) Arias et al., Functional Ecology, https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2435.13315

The Crux

Predators are one of the strongest forces of selection in the natural world, and as a result it can be quite costly to stand out and be more easily noticed. This means that in order to survive, animals must adapt to avoid predators. Besides running away from what is trying to eat you, your best bet is to evolve body coloration that helps you avoid being seen by a predator.

Animals that rely on blending in will match the color or even the texture of their backgrounds, but when prey species live in areas where they cannot easily blend in (like plankton in the water column) they often evolve to be transparent. Unlike their marine counterparts, transparency is normally rare in terrestrial animals. The clearwing butterfly is one notable exception to this rule, and the authors of today’s paper wanted to test whether or not these clear wings actually reduce predation.
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