Hunting alters viral transmission and evolution in a large carnivore (2022) Fountain-Jones et al., Nature Ecology & Evolution, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-021-01635-5
Image credit: Joachim S. Müller, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
It’s no secret than humans have had an enormous impact on the native wildlife of our planet, and we have looked into many of these complicated relationships and effects before on Ecology for the Masses. One common interaction is that of hunting, whereby humans hunt and kill an animal for recreation and/or food. Regardless of your feelings on hunting, such removal of animals can be an issue in systems where there is density-dependent transmission, meaning the more animals there are, the more likely there is to be parasite transmission within the populations of these animals. Reducing animal populations via hunting can either decrease, have no effect on, or even increase density-dependent transmission.
These changes in transmission dynamics (and subsequent changes in infection patterns) will have effects on the evolution of the parasites infecting these animals, making it easier for researchers to detect if (and how much) transmission is occuring. To investigate these patterns, today’s authors studied data on feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and its puma (Puma concolor) hosts. FIV is mostly benign and infects its hosts for life, though puma hosts can become infected with different strains of FIV. The goal of today’s study was to understand how hunting affects transmission dynamics of FIV within populations of puma that are hunted.
High parasite diversity accelerates host adaptation and diversification (2018) Betts et al., Science. https://doi:10.1126/science.aam9974
Image Credit: Dr. Graham Beards, CC BY-SA 3.0
Host-parasite relationships are often thought of or depicted in a pairwise structure. That is, one host is attacked by one parasite, without an acknowledgement or consideration of how complex the relationship can be. For example, hosts are often attacked by more than one type of parasite, and the parasites themselves have to compete with one another for resources from the host. Because parasites are costly for a host, the hosts benefit from evolving resistance to the parasites. It follows that the more parasites a host is attacked by, the higher the benefit of evolving resistance, so we’d expect to see more resistance in hosts that are attacked more often. This should then result in differential evolutionary rates among hosts, which would then result in greater evolutionary divergence (see Did You Know?)
To test this idea, the authors of today’s study used a bacterium (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and five lytic viral parasites (hereafter bacteriophages). These bacteriophages reproduce within host cells until they eventually cause the host to burst, killing the host (think of the chestburster in Alien, but a LOT of them). Because their reproduction results in the death of the host, lytic parasites impose a very strong selection pressure on hosts, making this a perfect host-parasite system to test the above prediction.
A young octopus (Graneledone verrucosa) moves across the seafloor. Observed during the Okeanos Explorer Northeast U.S. Canyons 2013 expedition. (Image Credit: NOAA Ocean Exploration & Research, CC BY-SA 2.0, Image cropped)
In nature every death brings new life. A fascinating example are whale-falls: when a whale dies, its carcass will sink down to the ocean floor where it creates a unique ecosystem for bottom-dwelling organisms. Whales’ bodies can weigh up to 200 tons and contain massive amounts of fat and proteins. When a dead whale reaches the ocean floor it brings a lot of resources to an environment which is usually limited by food availability. The fortunate creatures experiencing the whale-fall welcome such a great source of nutrition, and use up everything they can, until the last vertebra is decomposed.
Whilst cichlid fish might look incredibly diverse, they are actually all relatively genetically similar. So how do we define genetic diversity, and how do we conserve it? (Image Credit: Emir Kaan Okutan, Pexels Licence, Image Cropped)
Biodiversity has become an immensely popular buzzword over the last few decades. Yet the concept of genetic diversity has been less present in everyday ecological conversations. So today I want to go through why genetic diversity is important, how we define it, and why there is often controversy about its application in conservation science. Read more
Image Credit: Kevin Gill, CC BY 2.0, Image Cropped
No consistent effects of humans on animal genetic diversity worldwide (2020) Millette et al, Ecology Letters, https://doi.org/10.1111/ele.13394
As a species, we humans have had enormous negative effects on the planet, and we have talked about many of these issues and how they relate to ecology on many separate occasions here on Ecology for the Masses (see here, here, and here). A key implication of these human-induced changes to our planet are that many organisms are threatened with extinction, which can be bad for us as well (looking at you insect apocalypse).
Having said all of that, a lot of the work that has been done in this area has focused on specific groups (like the charismatic koala). By doing so, we run the risk of not understanding the global pattern but instead draw conclusions based off of local patterns. While we sometimes must make these kind of generalizations, this is not always a good idea. For example, we cannot look at the health of animal populations in New York City and make statements about the entirety of all of the animal populations in North America. To get around that issue, today’s authors investigated, on a global scale, if humans were having a global impact on animal genetic diversity.
In this series we’re looking at the discipline of ecofeminism and the difficulties it has faced over the last half a century. You can read the introductory piece here, and part two on the difficulties it had defining itself here. Image Credit: C Watts, CC BY 2.0, Image Cropped.
The ecofeminism movement gained steam in the mid-1970s, at least in the Global North. Naturally, it borrowed a great deal from the environmental movements and versions of feminism that were most prevalent at the time. Here I’ll look at how those origins may have initially constrained the inclusiveness of the philosophy, and how it has moved on since.
The Japanese Knotweed, an invasive species often found in gardens (Image Credit: HOerwin56, Pixabay license, Image Cropped)
Guest post by Malene Nygård
Garden plants have a long tradition in Norway; from being used as medicine and food in the gardens of Catholic monasteries in the Middle Ages to today’s exotic ornamental plants. But this tradition also represents several centuries of unmonitored introductions of alien species, and it has left its mark in Norwegian nature.