Tag Archives: marine

Nancy Knowlton: The Importance of Earth Optimism

Whilst it might seem like little guys like this don’t have much to smile about these days, being optimistic about the state of the environment is more important than ever, according to Nancy Knowlton (Image Credit: Rosalyn Davis, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0, Image Cropped)

At the very beginning of my PhD, I was in the audience at the STARMUS Festival when American reef biologist Nancy Knowlton gave a talk about Earth Optimism. It came just after the American President had withdrawn his support for the Paris climate agreement, and smiles regarding the state of the planet were hard to come by. So seeing an esteemed member of the scientific community give a reminder that there was hope for one of the earth’s most vulnerable ecosystem was inspiring.

At this year’s International Barcode of Life Conference in Trondheim, I had the chance to sit down with Nancy and talk about why optimism is so important in the face of the many ongoing problems that the planet faces.

Read more

Are ecolabels greenwashing your farmed salmon?

Salmon aquaculture nets near Hitra, Norway. (Image credit: Peter Anthony Frank, NTNU, CC BY 2.0)

The Norwegian Aquaculture Review Council is an academic collective comprised of NTNU students Danielle Hallé, Myranda O’Shea, Bastian Poppe, Emmanual Eicholz and Peter Anthony Frank.

With so much attention on climate change and biodiversity in the media today, it is hard not to be skeptical as to whether companies are taking advantage of these paradigms for their own profit by “greenwashing” their products. Greenwashing is the common term for the practice whereby an organization presents information that gives them an air of environmental responsibility but makes no real contribution to reducing the impacts of threats like climate change, pollution, loss of biodiversity.

Read more

Fishers and Fish Science: The Australian Fish Scientist Perspective

Fishing is an important part of Australian society. So is communication between fish scientists and fishers strong enough?

Fishing is an important part of Australian society. So is communication between fish scientists and fishers strong enough? (Image Credit: State Library of Queensland, CC0)

Last Thursday, I posted an article on the need for more contact communication the fish scientist community and the fishing community, which you can find here. It gives a breakdown of why better communication between the two groups is mutually beneficial, and how it could be improved. The piece was written after talks with a number of prominent Australian fish biologists, whose thoughts I’ve shared in more detail below.

Read more

Gretta Pecl: Climate Change in Coastal Waters

Gretta Pecl, founder of the Redmap project, which aims to demonstrate tangible effects of climate change to Australia's fishing community

So often the effects of climate change are somewhat intangible to us; the weather may grow warmer, but it’s a slow and gradual process, which can seem entirely at odds with the alarm bells that things like the IPCC report seem to be constantly clanging. As such, demonstrating tangible environmental changes to a community whose livelihood may depend on such changes is a great weapon in the fight against the effects of a warming climate.

With this in mind, marine biologist Gretta Pecl founded the Range Extension Database and Mapping project, also known as Redmap. Redmap aggregates public sightings of fish to show shifts in the distributions of Australia’s marine species, including some that are crucial to our fishers. At the recent ASFB 2018 conference, I sat down with Gretta to talk about changes in marine species distributions, how they’ll affect Australia, and how they might help the public understand the effects of climate change.

Read more

Refining Nemo: Musings from the Australian Society of Fish Biology Conference

The Australian Society of Fish Biology's 2018 Conference delivered some of the most engaging, intriguing talks I've had the pleasure of witnessing

 As a fish ecologist living in Norway, it’s a joy to be able to travel to Melbourne and interact with the people that are driving forward fish science in my home country. So when I found out that the Australian Society of Fish Biology’s annual conference was taking place 3 days after my first flight home since 2016, I knew it was an opportunity I couldn’t pass up.

We’re on the last day of the conference at the moment, and over the next 2 months I’m looking forward to bringing you a number of insights, including interviews with guest speakers Eva Plaganyi and Gretta Pecl and pioneers of intriguing projects like Peter Unmack and Jarod Lyon. I’ll also have a fish edition of The Changing Face of Ecology, and some articles on how the angling community and the fish science community interact in a country with one of the most unique fish assemblages in the world.

Read more

The Pacific Oyster

The Pacific oyster could make its way further north as the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions warm

Last Monday, I wrote about how climate change can facilitate the spread of non-native and invasive species. Today, we look at a species that whilst problematic now, could spread further throughout Norwegian waters as temperatures rise.

The last time we looked at an ocean-dweller in this series, we saw that while some species may not be great for ecosystems, they can provide an obvious benefit to other aspects of the region, in this case the fishing industry. The Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) was also introduced intentionally for cultivation and is now on the verge of becoming a major problem in Norwegian waters.

What are they?

Because of its tolerance of most environments, the Pacific oyster has become the most widely cultivated oyster in the world, and thus one of the most widely distributed alien species in the world. Originating from the North-West Pacific, around Japan, it’s sometimes referred to as the Japanese oyster. There is some confusion regarding its taxonomy, with it also sometimes referred to as the Portuguese oyster, though it’s possible the two are separate species. They are large, jagged oysters, and occur in marine coastal waters.

How did they get here?

The oysters were imported into waters throughout Scandinavia and most of Northern Europe to replace dwindling stocks of native oysters at various points through the 20th century. Naturally, they eventually established wild populations as well, and are now abundant along Norway’s southern coast. Whilst they have taken over coastlines through much of Europe, their dislike of colder waters means that for now, their local populations are largely constrained to the south of Norway. But increases in temperature, which will occur at an accelerated rate in the Arctic and sub-Arctic, mean that the oyster could spread further north in the coming decades.

1200px-Pacific_oysters

Whilst the Pacific oyster’s place in novel marine food webs is still not particularly well understood, these specific oysters place in their immediate food web is very obvious (Image Credit: Wikipedia Commons)

What do they do?

Much like the Red King Crab, they transform the local ecosystem into a homogenous mass. They can transform substrate from soft bottomed and muddy to filled with rocks and other oysters and mussels, also paving the way for other alien species, and lowering regional biodiversity by outcompeting and displacing local species. Interestingly though, presence of oysters can often improve water quality in the surrounding regions and heighten ecosystem productivity, though the position of the oyster in novel food webs is not particularly well understood. They also have negative effects for local human populations, making certain areas impossible to use for recreation, as they’re extremely sharp.

How do we stop them?

In other countries, attempts to eradicate wold populations by harvesting them have proved futile, and a 2005 study showed the oyster eradication would also cause substantial harm to the local ecosystem. Warming seas will mean the expansion of the oyster’s range, however this is likely to happen very slowly, so by focusing on the ranges edges it may be possible in the future to limit expansion.

For more information on the oyster, we recommend that you read the following articles:

Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheet – Crassostrea gigas by the Online Database of the North European and Baltic Network on Invasive Alien Species

Crassostrea gigas – Cultured Aquatic Species Information Program by the Fisheries and Aquaculture Department of the United Nations